Planets Born from Dying Stars - Management Practicalintroduction

Researchers have discovered binary-star systems that have an unusual cavity at the center of their surrounding disk of gas and matter (right). This cavity might be evidence that planets form in these systems.

Scientists studying the births of planets typically spend their time analyzing the rings of dust, known as protoplanetary disks, that form around freshly burning stars. From this dust, they have seen evidence of matter coming together to form protoplanets that, like Earth, orbit a single star. Now, Jacques Kluska and Hans Van Winckel from KU Leuven, Belgium, and colleagues report observations that indicate that there might exist another route for stars to birth planets. This finding could help scientists better understand how common planets are in the Universe.

Kluska, Van Winckel, and colleagues consider a type of evolved binary-star system known as a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) binary. In this binary system, when one of the stars dies, a disk of cosmic building materials forms around the dead star—and the star that’s still alive. The makeup of such a disk has been shown to be very similar to that of a protoplanetary disk, which is known to birth planets. Van Winckel says that this similarity led him and his colleagues to decide to investigate the dust more deeply. “You could say that nature showed us the way,” he says.

In their study, Kluska, Van Winckel, and colleagues looked at 85 post-AGB binaries. They studied archival data for each system. They also collected new spectrograph data using the Mercator telescope in Spain. The team analyzed the infrared emission from each post-AGB binary to characterize the composition of its dust and to categorize the morphology of its disk. They then compared data from all the post-AGB binaries. They found that 10% appear to house a matter cavity at their centers. This cavity depletes iron and other refractory elements from the dying star’s surface.

To explain this element depletion, the team explored several causes, including the presence in the post-AGB binary of a star that is naturally low in the missing elements. But ultimately, they zeroed in on it arising from the existence of a newly formed planet. The presence of a young planet is the “best explanation we came up with,” Kluska says.

This finding opens a “new vista” for the study of the disks around post-AGB binaries, says Yanqin Wu, a professor of theoretical astrophysics at the University of Toronto, whose work focuses on the study of protoplanetary disks. “The planet hypothesis is titillating,” she says. “If new planets do form in the center of the disks around dying stars, they will be like a phoenix rising out of the ashes.” However, while Wu is intrigued by the team’s explanation for their findings, she is not convinced that a planet is the only solution to the observed puzzle and says “other physical explanations could connect the two dots.”

To find out if their planet hypothesis is correct, Kluska, Van Winckel, and their colleagues say that they plan to collect and analyze further data. Specifically, the team will use high-spatial-resolution images from observatories such as the Very Large Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, both in Chile, to study the structure of the post-AGB binaries in more detail. If the planet hypothesis is proven correct, post-AGB binary systems could serve as a new laboratory to test models of planet formation, Kluska says.


Quantum Computing Arrays Made From Multiple Atomic Species, That Are Rubidium and Cesium Atoms

Using arrays of a single type of neutral atom, researchers have recently demonstrated that they can orchestrate atomic interactions for applications such as quantum computing or the controlled formation of single molecules. They are now looking to create neutral-atom arrays from multiple atomic species, something that could enable more advanced quantum computing protocols, for example. Toward that goal, Xiaodong He of the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, China, and colleagues have now experimentally demonstrated how to produce arrays containing two different rubidium isotopes [1]. The demonstration parallels another by a team led by Hannes Bernien at the University of Chicago, which realized arrays of rubidium and cesium atoms [2].

Both teams used optical tweezers to arrange their atom arrays. He and his colleagues worked with two isotopes of rubidium. They loaded a mixture of around 30 rubidium-85 ( 85Rb85Rb) and rubidium-87 ( 87Rb87Rb) atoms into optical tweezer arrays from a magneto-optical trap. They then used fluorescence imaging to measure the initial array pattern that the atoms formed. Next, they rearranged the 85Rb85Rb and 87Rb87Rb atoms, using a movable tweezer to switch out one rubidium isotope for another so that they could create a specific array pattern. The steps of this switch-out process were determined by an algorithm that He’s team developed so that they could replace incorrect isotopes in the fewest possible moves.

Bernien’s team worked with cesium and rubidium, two atoms that interact with different wavelengths of light. Because of this difference, the team could independently trap the two atomic elements using different sets of tweezers and then arrange them in an array. They arranged about 300 atoms in total in an array with around 500 sites. Bernien’s team could also use one set of tweezers to reload one atomic species into the array while using the other to hold the second species still, a capability necessary to continuously implement quantum protocols.

He and his colleagues demonstrated a 2D checkerboard pattern of alternating isotopes, which they say is well suited for executing some types of quantum error correction code. They also made a 2D striped pattern. Bernien’s team also created various 2D patterns, including an arrangement that resembled the outline of the Sears Tower. In future work, both teams plan to use their arrays to demonstrate quantum computing protocols.


  • C. Sheng et al., “Defect-free arbitrary-geometry assembly of mixed-species atom arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 083202 (2022).

  • K. Singh et al., “A dual-element, two-dimensional atom array with continuous-mode operation,” arXiv:2110.05515.


Tin-Can Telephone - Connects Two Ions Through Metal Wire

Figure 1: Ions are coupled over long distance through a metal wire with a pad on each end—resembling a tin-can telephone. Each ion creates a mirror charge in the pad below it, and those charges can carry currents from one ion to the other. When researchers cooled one ion with lasers, they observed a cooling effect in the second ion.

As a kid, I developed my physical intuition by playing with toys. Bouncing balls and yo-yos demonstrated Newtonian dynamics; magnifying glasses introduced optics; drums and flutes gave the basis of acoustics. However, one toy defied my early understanding of the world: the tin-can telephone. By simply tying two empty cans together with a long piece of string and holding one can to my ear, I could hear the slightest whispers from a friend talking into the other can. It hardly made sense that a simple string could allow sounds to travel farther than they would in air. Two new experiments have demonstrated a scheme analogous to a tin-can telephone but based on a thin wire connecting two single ions trapped at remote locations. This connection allows the particles to sense each other at separations a thousand times farther than the range of direct interactions. The two research groups use their “tin-can telephones” to control the temperature of one particle with the other.

Physicists have long been trapping charged particles, and in the last 30 years, many laboratories have mastered trapping single ions, protons, and electrons. These experiments are at the frontier of research in quantum computing, optical clocks, and high-precision experiments that test fundamental laws of physics. Trapping charged particles is tricky, as the symmetries of electromagnetism do not allow static confining potentials in three dimensions—a limitation that goes by the name of Earnshaw’s theorem. However, several ingenious experiments have shown how to use dynamically varying potentials to trap charged particles.

Besides trapping, another tricky aspect is detecting the presence of trapped particles in the traps and controlling their motion and internal states. Since the early days of ion trapping, a common method has been to use one of the trap’s electrodes as a particle sensor. Once charged particles enter the trap, they generate “mirror charges” in the electrode. The movement of the trapped particles makes the mirror charges move, generating a measurable current. However, the mirror-charge method has lacked the sensitivity for controlling the motion of single particles inside the trap. Researchers have an alternative method to control single particles using light fields, but such a method only works for particles with accessible optical transitions. A desired goal in the trapping community is to make the mirror-charge method more effective for controlling the motion of single particles.

Two groups took up this challenge: Da An and collaborators at the University of California, Berkeley [1], and Matthew Bohman and collaborators at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany [2]. The groups’ experiments showed that a pair of independent, single particles can sense each other through the mirror charges they generate in a nearby conductor in the form of a wire. In other words, they managed to create a single-particle tin-can telephone. Here, the vibration of the particle on one side induces a corresponding motion in the wire’s electrons. That electron response in turn affects the other particle at the far end of the line. Both groups use this “long-distance” connection for temperature control. Roughly speaking, they use the wire to send a “cooling message” from a cold particle on one side to a hot particle on the other. With separations of around a millimeter or more, the particles are too far apart to send this message through dipole or van der Waals interactions, which normally can’t be felt at separations greater than a micrometer.

In An and co-workers’ experiment [1], two calcium ions are trapped in independent traps 0.6 mm away from each other. These two traps were built on a planar wafer, with carefully etched surface electrodes. Most of these electrodes are designed to confine each of the particles, in the same way that planar traps are built for quantum computing with ions. However, the team’s trap setup has an extra electrode, which is a thin wire with a pad on each end. The ions levitate above these pads, which are like the tin cans of a toy telephone (Fig. 1).

To prove the connection between the two ions, the Berkeley team observed a change in the heating rate of their ions. Cold ions, if left alone, heat up because of various interaction mechanisms with their environment. When the researchers actively cooled one of the calcium ions with lasers, they observed that the other ion heated up significantly slower than would normally be the case. As the coupling between the ions was relatively small in this experiment, the researchers did not manage to cool the second ion but rather slowed down its heating by a factor of 2.

Bohman and collaborators [2], however, did manage to cool protons via a wire connecting them to laser-cooled beryllium ions at a distance of 9 cm. Their trick, well known to ion trappers, was to attach a resonator to the wire. The resonator (an LC circuit) enhanced the currents in the wire, thus making the overall particle-to-particle coupling stronger.

The resonator-enhanced interaction between the laser-cooled ions was strong enough to allow sympathetic cooling of single protons down to temperatures below 5 K. This temperature is still above the temperature of the laser-cooled ions, which are typically in the microkelvin range. Here, the cooling of the protons is limited by the temperature of the resonator, which is cooled with liquid helium to only a few kelvin. Researchers might be able to achieve lower proton temperatures by tuning the resonator frequency to an optimal value that maintains the strong particle-to-particle coupling while also lowering the resonator-to-particle heat transfer.

The ideas developed in these experiments are not new [3]. They were proposed by the pioneers of ion trapping back in the day. It took years of effort to reach this first clear demonstration of tin-can cooling. Further refinement could allow cooling of protons or other fundamental particles to microkelvin temperatures deep in the so-called quantum regime. With ultracold trapped protons, researchers could, for example, make precision measurements of the charge-to-mass ratio and of the gyromagnetic factor, which could reveal inconsistencies in the standard model of particle physics. On the more practical side, tin-can telephones might one day connect ion qubits, leading to new platforms for quantum simulation and computation.


  • Da An et al., “Coupling two laser-cooled ions via a room-temperature conductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 063201 (2022).

  • M. Bohman et al., “Sympathetic cooling of a trapped proton mediated by an LC circuit,” Nature 596, 514 (2021).

  • D. J. Heinzen and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum-limited cooling and detection of radio-frequency oscillations by laser-cooled ions,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2977 (1990).


Royal Thailand Government Scholarships 2022 (Fully Funded)

The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand is offering applicants to its Master and Doctoral degree programs an opportunity to qualify for generous academic scholarships. A large number of no-bond AIT Scholarships are available for students applying for postgraduate programs offered at AIT’s School of Engineering and Technology (SET); School of Environment, Resources and Development (SERD); and School of Management (SOM). As Asia’s leading international higher learning institute, the AIT Scholarships are intended to increase the number of skilled international scientists, engineers, and managers required to meet the future challenges of the emerging Asian Economic Community region and beyond.

AIT Scholarships is a form of financial aid that provides an opportunity for admissible students from all over the world to study together at AIT. It helps subsidize part of the study cost by covering full, or a portion of, tuition for qualified students while the students are responsible for the rest of the tuition, the registration fees (20,000 Baht per semester to maintain student status) and the living expenses (around 11,500‐15,000 Baht per month). Each school has its Selection Committee. The Selection Committee will propose the value of AIT Scholarships grant for each applicant (if eligible) for approval by the School Dean. This AIT Scholarships grant can only be given once before the enrollment and cannot be changed over the entire study period.


  • All nationalities;

  • Meeting AIT’s English Proficiency Requirement (i.e. IELTS-Academic or AIT EET score of 5.0 or above for Master and 5.5 for Doctoral program);

  • Having four‐year Bachelor's degree from a recognized university;

  • Having a master’s degree from recognized university for Ph.D. applicants and should have a Cumulative GPA of 3.50 in their Master’s degree and 2.75 in their undergraduate program from top universities.


Applying to a graduate study at AIT is only a 2-step process.

STEP 1: Check Eligibility 

Check if you are eligible to apply to the degree programs being offered by AIT.


Apply using our online system.

Apply Here :

Deadline: 10 June 2022

Deadlines for 2022

The AIT academic year consists of two semesters: January and August. The deadlines of applications for admissions and financial aid (Scholarships) are as follows:

January Semester Intake

• Application is open now.

March Term Intake (only for School of Management)

• 15 February is the deadline for overseas applicants, requiring educational visa

• 25 February is for other applicants

June Term Intake (only for School of Management)

• 15 May is the deadline for overseas applicants, requiring educational visa

• 25 May is for other applicants

August Semester Intake

• 28 February is the deadline for HM King’s and Queen’s, and GMS scholarships

• 31 March is the deadline for other Scholarships (i.e. ADB-JSP, Kurita, Bangchak: Master and Doctoral and others.

• 10 June is the deadline for AIT Scholarships including RTG Fellowships.

• 30 June is the deadline for overseas applicants, requiring educational visa

• 25 July is for other applicants

October Term Intake (only for School of Management)

• 15 September is the deadline for overseas applicants, requiring educational visa

• 25 September is for other applicants


All applicants are requested to have Personal or Ordinary Passport (not the Official Passport or Diplomat Passport) when applying for "Educational Visa (ED)" from Thailand Embassy in your home country to study at AIT.

For applicants who require early offer of admission or those with visa and passport restrictions*, their applications must be submitted to AIT at least 3 months before the above deadlines.

*In case of incoming students from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Mongolia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Middle and Central Asia Countries, and some African countries, the visa authorization letter will be issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) of Thailand, not by AIT, and dispatched to the respective Royal Thai Embassy or Consulate via diplomatic channel. The visa authorization will normally be approved 2-3 weeks after issuance of the Certificate of Admission.

More information :


Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme 2022-23


Established by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong in 2009, the Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme (HKPFS) aims at attracting the best and brightest students in the world to pursue their PhD studies in Hong Kong's universities.


Candidates who are seeking admission as new full time PhD students in the following eight universities, irrespective of their country of origin, prior work experience and ethnic background, should be eligible to apply.

  • City University of Hong Kong
  • Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Lingnan University
  • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • The Education University of Hong Kong
  • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  • The University of Hong Kong

Applicants should demonstrate outstanding qualities of academic performance, research ability / potential, communication and interpersonal skills, and leadership abilities.

Fellowship Award

The Fellowship provides an annual stipend of HK$322,800 (approximately US$41,400) and a conference and research-related travel allowance of HK$13,500 (approximately US$1,730) per year for each awardee for a period up to three years. 300 PhD Fellowships will be awarded in the 2022/23 academic year*. For awardees who need more than three years to complete the PhD degree, additional support may be provided by the chosen universities. For details, please contact the universities concerned directly.

* Universities in Hong Kong normally start their academic year in September.

Selection Panel

Shortlisted applications, subject to their areas of studies, will be reviewed by one of the following two Selection Panels comprising experts in the relevant board areas:

  • Sciences, Medicine, Engineering and Technology

  • Humanities, Social Sciences and Business Studies

Selection Criteria

While candidates' academic excellence is of primary consideration, the Selection Panels will take into account factors as follows:

  • Academic excellence;
  • Research ability and potential;
  • Communication and interpersonal skills; and
  • Leadership abilities.

How to Apply

Eligible candidates should first make an Initial Application online through the Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme Electronic System (HKPFSES) to obtain an HKPFS Reference Number by 1 December 2021 at Hong Kong Time 12:00:00 before submitting applications for PhD admission to their desired universities.

Applicants may choose up to two programmes / departments at one or two universities for PhD study under HKPFS 2022/23. They should comply with the admission requirements of their selected universities and programmes.

As the deadlines for applications to some of the universities may immediately follow that of the Initial Application, candidates should submit initial applications as early as possible to ensure that they have sufficient time to submit applications to universities.

More information :


Fully Funded University of Padua Scholarship in Italy 2022

The University of Padua, the Veneto Region and other organisations offer various scholarship schemes to support students. Below is a list of the funding opportunities that are most often used by international students in Padua.

Padua International Excellence Scholarship Programme - a.y. 2022/23

The University of Padua offers 50 scholarships to highly talented prospective students wishing to pursue a Bachelor's or Master's degree completely held in English in Padua. The scholarship programme is highly selective. Only candidates showing the highest achievements and school / academic records may receive a scholarship. Successful scholars will be expected to fulfil an ambassadorial role and represent the University at a number of events.

Amount of scholarship: fee-waiver + €8,000 scholarship (gross amount) per each academic year. The only amount to be paid by beneficiary students for each year consists of an admission fee, corresponding to the regional tax and marca da bollo.

Duration: the Padua International Excellence Scholarship has a maximum duration of:

  • 2 continuous years for Master’s degree candidates;
  • 3 continuous years for Bachelor’s and Single-Cycle degree candidates.

After the duration indicated above, beneficiary students will be required to cover their own expenses as well as tuition fees until graduation.

Who can apply: highly talented prospective international students from all over the world wishing to enrol in one of University of Padua Bachelor's or Master's degrees completely held in English.

How to apply: you can be considered for the selection procedure, under penalty of exclusion, if you meet the requirements below.

Do not possess an Italian citizenship (except for dual citizenship including Italian);

hold a non-Italian foreign secondary school diploma (for Bachelor's or Single-cycle degrees applicants) or a non-Italian Bachelor's degree (for Master's degrees applicants) allowing admission to the Italian University system;

do not reside in Italy;

apply to one or more of the abovementioned degree programmes completely taught in English at the University of Padua. Please remember that you can apply up to 3 degree programmes.

If you meet these requirements, you will be automatically considered for the selection procedure

There is no separate application or additional specific documents to be submitted besides those required to apply for the selected degree programme.

Selection criteria: the Academic Commitee of each degree programme shortlists eligible applicants and awards the most deserving candidates the scholarships, based on academic excellence in their field of study, quality, and records from their prior learning.

Selection results: Scholarships are mainly reserved for candidates applying for the first application period; on an exceptional basis, the Academic Committees may decide to award the scholarship to eligible candidates of the second application period. 

Scholarships selection results will be published at according to the timeline indicated in the Call for applications.

Acceptance: if you are offered a Padua International Excellence scholarship you will receive a Padua International Excellence scholarship offer indicating the procedure and the deadline to accept it. To receive the scholarship, you must not benefit from other grants and be able to comply with the conditions to finalise your enrolment at the University of Padua. You will receive the first instalment upon your arrival in Padua. The merit conditions required to maintain the scholarship are detailed in the Call for applications.

Payments arrangements and maintenance requirements

the scholarship  will be paid in two (2) instalments of  €4,000 (gross amount) each per academic year upon achievement of the merit requirements indicated in the Call for applications.

Revocation: the University of Padua will revoke your scholarship if:

you do not obtain at least 20 ECTS by 30th November 2023

you decide to transfer to another University or withdraw from your studies.

In the above cases, you shall refund the amount of the scholarship already received.

Detailed information on the Padua International Excellence Scholarships will be available in the Call for application for A.Y. 2022/23.

More information :


Ireland Government Scholarship 2022 - IRISH RESEARCH COUNCIL (Fully Funded)

The Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship Programme is an established national initiative, funded by the Department of Further and Higher Education, Research, Innovation and Science, and managed by the Council.

The Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship Programme is unique in the Irish research landscape and complements other channels for funded postgraduate education in the Irish ecosystem. Among its features are:

  • individual, prestigious awards for excellent research in the name of the applicant;

  • an objective selection process using international, independent expert peer review;

  • funding across all disciplines, from archaeology to zoology; and

  • awards for bottom-up, non-directed research, with the exception of those funded by our strategic funding partners.

Pioneering proposals addressing new and emerging fields of research or those introducing creative, innovative approaches are welcomed. Proposals of an interdisciplinary nature are also encouraged as it is recognised that advancing fundamental understanding is achieved by integrating information, techniques, tools and perspectives from two or more disciplines.

The Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship Programme is highly competitive, with an average success rate of 18% over the past five years. Successful awardees under the programme are recognised as demonstrating world-class potential as future research leaders.

Strategic funding partners

A number of government departments and agencies partner with the Irish Research Council to support the Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship Programme as a mechanism to deliver on shared national objectives. The Irish Research Council’s strategic funding partners for 2022 are:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

  • Department of Children, Equality, Disability, Integration and Youth

  • Department of Foreign Affairs

  • Met √Čireann

What we offer

  • a stipend of €18,500 per annum;
  • a contribution to fees, including non-EU fees, up to a maximum of €5,750 per annum; and
  • eligible direct research expenses of €3,250 per annum.

How to apply

Potential applicants should read the call documentation carefully to ascertain whether or not they are eligible to apply. Indicative versions of the applicant, supervisor and referee forms are provided for information purposes only. All participants must create and submit their forms via the online system.

Key dates

Please note that the timings provided here are indicative and may be subject to change.

If you do not find the answer to your query in the call documentation, you should contact the research office in your proposed institution which will provide information and clarification on the call. Research offices can send any queries they are unable to clarify to

More information :


DAAD Scholarships 2022-2023 (fully funded) - Master's/PhD in Germany

With its development-oriented postgraduate study programmes, the DAAD promotes the training of specialists from development and newly industrialised countries. Well-trained local experts, who are networked with international partners, play an important part in the sustainable development of their countries. They are the best guarantee for a better future with less poverty, more education and health for all. The scholarships offer foreign graduates from development and newly industrialised countries from all disciplines and with at least two years' professional experience the chance to take a postgraduate or Master's degree at a state or state-recognised German university, and in exceptional cases to take a doctoral degree, and to obtain a university qualification (Master's/PhD) in Germany.

Duration of the funding

12 to 42 months (dependent on study programme)


  • Depending on academic level, monthly payments of 861 euros for graduates or 1,200 euros for doctoral candidates
  • Payments towards health, accident and personal liability insurance cover
  • Travel allowance, unless these expenses are covered by the home country or another source of funding

Under certain circumstances, scholarship holders may receive the following additional benefits:

  • Monthly rent subsidy
  • Monthly allowance for accompanying members of family


  • Candidates fulfil the necessary academic requirements and can be expected to successfully complete a study programme in Germany (above-average result for first academic exam – top performance third, language skills)

  • Candidates have a Bachelor degree (usually a four-year course) in an appropriate subject

  • Candidates have at least two years' professional experience

  • Candidates can prove their motivation is development-related and be expected to take on social responsibility and initiate and support processes of change in their personal and professional environment after their training/scholarship

What requirements must be met?

The Typical Scholarship Holder:

  • Works either for a public authority or a state or private company in a developing country and, as such, is engaged in the planning and execution of directives and projects with emphasis on development policies having a bearing on technological, economic or social areas.

  • Holds a Bachelor’s degree (normally four years) in a related subject.

  • Has completed an academic degree with far above average results (upper third) and at least two years of related professional experience after the first degree (bachelor) at the time of application.

  • His/her academic degrees should normally not be more than six years old.

Applicants who have been resident in Germany for longer than 15 months at the application deadline cannot be considered

Language skills

For study courses in German (scholarship includes a preparatory 6-month German language course in Germany): Successful passing of the language examination DSH 2 or TestDaF 4 before the start of the study course. Therefore, a minimum German language level of B1 at the time of application is a requirement, that needs to be proofed by providing a current certificate.

Note: It is not possible to pass the required German language courses (DSH or TestDaF) without any previous basic knowledge in the German language (at least B1 Level), even with the preceding six-month intensive course in Germany. Passing the language test is a formal prerequisite for matriculation at the respective German university.

For courses in English: IELTS (Band 6) certificate or TOEFL (minimum score: 550 paper based, 213 computer based, 80 internet based)

Note: Some courses may expect a different level. For detailed information see the relevant course description on the following pages.

Application documents

Applications have only to be sent to the respective course directly! Please refer to their respective websites for the application procedure (e.g. online application), for the application deadline and the documents to be submitted.

Applications sent to the DAAD will not be forwarded to the respective course/university.

You can apply for up to three courses. If applying to more than one course, please list courses in order of priority in the DAAD application forms (see 7. Choice of host university/institution in Germany) and do not change the priorities in the according application form!

Application documents

Required documents (in the following order):

  • Signed DAAD application form with current date

  • Personally signed CV (please use the sample europass form at with current date

  • Personally signed Letter of Motivation (with reference to current occupation and choice of postgraduate programme(s), two pages maximum) with current date.

IMPORTANT: When applying for more than one postgraduate course (maximum 3 courses), you have to submit one motivation letter explaining why you are applying for these specific courses and why you chose that priority.

  • Letter of recommendation from your current employer; the letter must have letterhead, a signature and official stamp and must be of current date (not in a sealed envelope)

  • Certificate(s) of Employment from the employer(s) that proof a minimum of two years of relevant working experience (after the bachelor degree) at the time of application and if possible, a guarantee of re-employment from your current employer upon returning home.

  • Proof of Language Skills:

o English – IELTS or TOEFL (Note: The institutional TOEFL is not accepted)

o German – required for courses taught in German

  • Copies of Academic Degrees (certified translation if necessary)

  • Copies of Academic Transcripts, incl. grading-scale (certified translation if necessary)

  • Applicants from the People’s Republic of China are asked to submit an APS Certificate with their application documents.

Note: Some courses may require additional documents. For detailed information, please see the relevant course description in the Brochure and on the respective websites.


The complete applications have to be submitted in English or German to be considered.

Incomplete applications cannot be considered.

If applying to more than one course, please list courses in order of priority in the DAAD application forms and do not change these priorities in the respective application.

When applying for more than one postgraduate course (maximum 3 courses), you have to submit one motivation letter explaining why you are applying for these specific courses and why you chose that priority. If this information is ignored, the application cannot be considered or an already awarded scholarship might be withdrawn.

Please check with the requirements of the according University whether certified copies are required.

Application deadline

Depending on chosen study programme; please check scholarship brochure or the website of your chosen study programme.

Application location

Apply directly to the chosen study programme

Application and Selection Procedure

Step 1: You send your complete application(s) directly to the according postgraduate course.

Step 2: A selection committee suggests potential candidates for a DAAD scholarship.

Step 3: The suggested candidates will be contacted by DAAD to upload their complete application to the DAAD Portal.

Step 4: The selection process will be finalized, and the suggested candidates will be informed accordingly.


Make sure that you have a copy of each document of your application ready, as those documents (as PDF files) have to be uploaded to the DAAD Portal in case you are suggested for a DAAD scholarship!

More information (download brochure) :


Apply to Canada Government Scholarships in 2022


Study in Canada Scholarships aim to increase opportunities for Canadian post-secondary institutions to welcome international students from a wide range of countries and territories on short-term exchanges for study or research.

Successful Canadian post-secondary institutions will have the opportunity to strengthen and diversify their international linkages and to promote their academic and research excellence in the new markets, in line with the objectives of Canada's International Education Strategy.

The new connections created through the program will diversify and enrich Canada’s education engagement with a diverse range of partners, strengthen bilateral ties, and complement the Government of Canada’s broader international trade diversification efforts.

Roles and responsibilities

Canadian post-secondary institutions

Canadian institutions:

  • submit applications on behalf of eligible candidates;
  • promote this scholarship opportunity to their faculty and staff members, as well as to partner institutions from the eligible countries/territories;
  • rank applications based on the institution’s strategic priorities;
  • identify a single person responsible for the submission of applications;
  • sign a Contribution Agreement with DFATD and disburse scholarship funds to successful candidates; and
  • submit qualitative and quantitative reports during the scholarship period.

Scholarship candidates

Candidates interested in this scholarship program should:

  • make their interest known to their home institution;
  • find out if there is an existing institutional collaboration or exchange agreement between their home institution and a Canadian institution;
  • request information from their home institution about the application process and selection criteria specific to the Canadian partner institution; and
  • ensure they meet the eligibility requirements.

Post-secondary institutions from eligible countries/territories

Post-secondary institutions from eligible countries/territories should:

  • communicate with partner institutions in Canada to confirm or explore institutional collaborations and student exchange agreements;
  • promote this scholarship opportunity through their international offices;
  • identify candidates who meet the eligibility and admission requirements for the Canadian partner institution;
  • provide supporting documents for their candidates to the Canadian partner institution, which is responsible for submitting the scholarship applications; and
  • advise selected candidates to gain additional linguistic training and intercultural skills before their departure.

Successful applicants

Scholarship recipients agree to:

  • engage in full-time studies or research as defined by the Canadian institution;
  • arrive in Canada for the uptake of their award between August 1, 2022 but no later than February 1, 2023. Failure to arrive during this time may result in the cancellation of the scholarship.
  • abstain from clinical training or clinically-oriented research involving direct patient-care;
  • focus primarily on full-time studies or research during their stay in Canada; and
  • return to their home institutions after the scholarship period to complete their studies.

Additional information

the scholarship administrator will not provide feedback to unsuccessful candidates;

scholarships cannot be deferred and are not renewable;

scholarships are subject to availability of funding from the Government of Canada;

scholarships are not taxable for either the Canadian institution or the scholarship recipient.

Competition: Open for the 2022-2023 academic year

Deadline: March 22, 2022

Who applies: Canadian post-secondary institutions

NOTE: Only Canadian institutions can submit applications on behalf of candidates. They may choose to set their own internal deadline to receive supporting documents.

More information :


The Austrian Development Cooperation Offers Two Types of Scholarships in 2022


  • Scholarship for ADC’s priority countries
  • Scholarship for other developing countries

And they can be used for any of the modules below.

General Module including Professional Modules:

  • Hospitality Management Module OR
  • Tourism Management Module

with Elective in:

  • Entrepreneurship or
  • Teacher Training Module (TT)


Students may attend ITH by private means or through scholarships given by the Austrian Development Cooperation.

Limited number of scholarships are offered every year by the Austrian Development Cooperation. Please be aware that being offered a scholarship is not automatic and very competitive.


  • Get information about ITH from an Austrian consulate or embassy

  • Download ITH application form by clicking here. Austrian embassies and consulates have this form as well.

  • Application Process – all applications should be sent directly to the Institute via post. Submission deadline is the 15th of March 2022, which means the Institute has to receive the application latest by March 15th.

  • Confirmation – You would be informed about the result of your application by the end of April. If you were awarded a scholarship you will receive a letter of acceptance.

Tips for a succesful scholarship application:

  • Fill out the application form properly and legibly.

  • Make sure you supply all the required information and attach the entire required documents.

  • Send translated English or German documents if required.

  • Include a working e-mail address, phone and fax numbers as your application might be abandoned if your e-mail address, phone and fax number are not good.

  • Apply early. Late applications will not be processed.

  • Provide all admission requirements (read the ITH application form, and visa process carefully).

  • Clarify any doubts with the ITH office and Austrian embassy/consulate (In written form: e-mail or regular mail).

  • Show with facts why you should receive a scholarship (achievements, goals…).

Only appropriate applications will be considered. 

Important Dates:

Deadline for the submission of application form: March 15 2022*

Beginning of Courses: First day of October of the academic year.

Visa Application: You can start with the Visa application process right after receiving the letter of acceptance.

(*Academic year: October to June)

Attention for 57th Batch: 

Deadline for the submission of application form: March 15, 2022

Planned duration of course: October 01, 2022 – June 16, 2023

Scholarship for ADC Priority Countries

Limited to applicants from the following countries:

  • Ethiopia
  • Uganda
  • Burkina Faso
  • Mozambique
  • Bhutan
  • Palestinian Territories
  • Georgia
  • Armenia

The scholarship includes:

  • Tuition fee
  • Accommodation
  • Flight tickets (from home country to Salzburg and back)
  • Health insurance
  • Food from Monday – Sunday
  • Excursions (except field trip to ITB Berlin)
  • €205,- pocket money per month

Not included in this scholarship are:

Transfer: Transfer from the airport to the hostel and back to the airport when leaving.

Visa fee: The visa fee has to be paid by the applicants. The fee for the 8 month residence permit is €160.

The fees for the entry visa (Visa D) are different, please contact your embassy for detailed information.

Please note that Nicaragua candidates are only eligible for scholarship for developing countries. Nevertheless, the difference in both scholarships are being paid for some Nicaragua candidates by the City Partner Salzburg – Leon and thereby decides who receives such grant.

Scholarship for developing countries

The scholarship includes:

  • Tuition fee
  • Health insurance
  • Food from Monday – Friday
  • Excursions (except ITB Berlin)
  • €205,- pocket money per month

Not included in the scholarship are:

Accomondation: Accomondation costs have to be covered by students who are awarded this scholarship.

The total accommodation fee of approx. € 1.700,- has to be remitted in advance before admission letter can be issued.

Flight ticket: Students with this scholarship have to cover their own travel expenses from their countries to Salzburg and back.

Visa fee: The visa fee has to be paid by the applicants. The fee for the 8 month residence permit is €160.

The fees for the entry visa (Visa D) are different, please contact your embassy for detailed information.

Please note that there is an age limit of 35 years for eligibility.

More information :


Study in Denmark with Scholarship This Year 2022

How can I get a scholarship?

National and European programmes offer scholarships for international students, who wish to study in Denmark through an institutional agreement, as guest students or as a part of an international double degree or joint degree. Certain restrictions and prerequisites apply for the following programmes:


If you are enrolled at a Nordic or Baltic higher education institution, Nordplus may offer a possibility to study in another Nordic or Baltic country as part of your degree.

For further information, contact your home university or the national educational agency. To learn more about the Nordplus programme, please visit :


The Erasmus programme offers students from the EU/EEA and Switzerland the possibility to study abroad as part of their higher education in their home countries. Exchange range from between 2 and 12 months.

For further information, please contact your home university or the national educational agency of your country.

To learn more about the Erasmus-programme and find out if you are eligible to apply, please visit the website of the European Commission.

Erasmus Mundus/Joint Master Degree

The Erasmus Mundus programme is open to both EU/EEA and non-EU/EAA students. Through the Erasmus Mundus scheme you can apply for a scholarship to study specific Master's degree programmes.

The courses are offered jointly by a Danish institution and another European university or college. Students and scholars must contact the individual Erasmus Mundus Master courses to learn more about scholarships and application procedures.

See a list of approved Erasmus Mundus Masters courses in Denmark

Fulbright Commission

The Fulbright Commission fosters cultural understanding through its prestigious grant program for educational exchange.

If you are an American scholar or postgraduate student at master or Ph.D.-level, you can apply for a Fulbright grant for an entire academic year of study and/or research in Denmark.

For more information about selection criteria and the application process for a Fulbright grant, please visit the Fulbright Commission website.

Danish government scholarships for highly qualified non-EU/EEA students

Danish universities receive a limited number of government scholarships each year to fund highly qualified full-degree students from non-EU/EEA countries and Switzerland.

In order to be eligible for a scholarship you must be :

  • a citizen of a country outside the EU, the European Economic Area or Switzerland
  • enrolled in a full degree higher education programme
  • granted a time-limited residence permit in Denmark due to education

You are not eligible for a Danish government scholarship if you :

  • are seeking admission to an Artistic Higher Education Institution
  • have a legal claim to the rights of Danish citizens
  • have been granted a residence permit at the time of admission by the Danish Aliens Consolidations Act §9c, subsection 1, as the child of a foreign citizen who has been granted a residence permit in accordance with the Danish Aliens Consolidations Act §9m, and who is a citizen of a country that is not acceded to the EU or covered by the EEA agreement
  • are student who is eligible for a grant in accordance with Danish Law regarding the State Education Fund

The scholarships are administered by the Danish universities, who each select the students, who are awarded with a scholarship.

For further information about the government scholarship, please consult the admission details of the higher education institution of your choice.

Please note: The government scholarship consists of two parts and can be given as full or partial tuition fee waivers and/or grants towards covering your living costs. However, since the scholarships are administered by the higher education institutions themselves, you should enquire at the institution of your choice for further details.

The Danish State Educational Support (SU)

The Danish State Educational Support (SU) is generally only awarded to Danish residents. As an international student you may, however, apply for equal status in so far as the state educational support is concerned. You may be granted equal status according to:

  • Danish rules
  • EU law

For details on how to apply, visit the website of the Danish Education Support Agency.

Other sources of information on scholarships

Several scholarship programmes for both EU and non-EU students are listed at the EU-database Ploteus. PhD students and researchers should visit the European Researchers' Mobility Portal :

Useful links :

Erasmus (European Commission)

Erasmus Mundus (European Commission)

List of approved Erasmus Mundus Masters Courses in Denmark 

Erasmus Mundus in Denmark


The Fullbright Commission

The Danish State Educational Support (SU), Danish Rules

The Danish State Educational Support (SU), EU law

The European Researchers' Mobility Portal


Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships in Belgium (2022)

Want to study in Belgium? If so, then you should start processing your applications for the recently launched opportunity coming up altogether from the land of Belgium. Submit your applications for the Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships. The applications are invited and being received for this opportunity. All students from the world are eligible to apply for. This scholarship scheme is for Master’s programs.

Information about Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships

The Master Mind Scholarship 2022 is for all international students, and has been announced for only Master’s programs. The opportunity is open and welcome the exceptional students from all parts of the world to apply for The Flemish Ministry of Education scholarships open for Master’s degrees in Flanders and Brussels. The purpose of the program is to promote both Brussels and Flanders as a top study destination. Under this scholarship scheme, a number of universities and universities of applied sciences and arts are participating.

Brief Description about Master Mind Scholarship Belgium

Let’s learn the details about the Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships for International Students.

Country: Belgium

Universities: List is mentioned (below)

Program: Masters

Financial Coverage: Funded

Fields of Study under Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships

All subjects offered at the participating higher education institutions are eligible except preparatory programs, distance learning and bridging programs.

Financial Benefits

The financial coverage for scholarship in Belgium 2022 includes a grant of €8,400 in addition to a tuition fee waiver per academic year. The successful students (scholarship awardees) will only pay an administrative enrolment fee. The applicants can only be asked for a tuition fee of maximum €115.80 per year for 2022/23 by The Flemish Host Institution.


The duration of mobility for a Master’s degree of 60 ECTS is one academic year, and two academic years for the Master’s degree program consisting of 120 ECTS.

Eligibility Criteria for Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships

To be considered for this opportunity of Master Mind Scholarship 2022-2023, the applicants need to showcase their eligibility. Let’s find it out below:

The applicants need to apply for a Master’s degree at a university (participating higher education institution) in Flanders.

The applicants must possess a higher standard of academic career or potential. The grad point average should be 5 out of 4.0.

They must possess proficiency in English language. They need to provide test results or letter of exemption provided by the host university. See details (complete updates) on the official website.

To receive this scholarship opportunity, the applicant should be accepted by a host institution. The criterion also applies to those students whom the host institution accepts after the selection of the Master Mind Scholarships (for more accurate details, the applicants should visit the official website).

Nomination can only be done by one Flemish higher education institution. In case, the applicant is pre-selected by more than one Flemish higher education institution, he or she needs to select one Flemish participating/higher education institution to submit the application into the mobility online tool.

All students (all nationalities) of the world are eligible to submit their applications for this program.

Previous degree earned from a university/higher education institution should be from outside Flanders.

Those who are already in any of Flemish university or higher education institution are not eligible to submit their applications.

Host Institutions and Their Deadlines under Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships.

Following are the participating universities/higher education institutions. Let’s check the out.

Universities :

- KU Leuven (Deadline: February 1, 2022)

- Ghent University (Deadline: April 6, 2022)

- University of Antwerp (Deadline: March 1, 2022)

- Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Deadline: February 25, 2022)

- Hasselt University (Deadline: March 15, 2022)

Universities of Applied Sciences and Arts :

- Erasmus Brussels University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Deadline: T.B.C.)

- AP University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Deadline: March 1, 2022)

- HOGENT University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Deadline: March 25, 2022)

- LUCA School of Arts (Deadline: March 1, 2022)

- KdG University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Deadline: March 30, 2022)

- PXL University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Deadline: March 1, 2022)

Required Documents

  • Passport photo
  • CV/Resume
  • Passport or national ID
  • Transcript of records
  • Motivation letter (in English)
  • English test results of the exemption letter
  • Letter of recommendations (two)
  • Copy of acquired diploma(s)
  • Note: For complete details, visit the official website.

Deadline for Applications

The internal deadlines for application submission vary, as mentioned above. They fall between 1st February 2022 to 6th April 2022. You must check above and also check with the university or institution you are applying for. Applications submission in Mobility Online Tool is midnight on April 29, 2022 GMT+1. Validated applications which are submitted after April 29th 2022 will not be accepted.

How to Apply for Government of Flanders Master Mind Scholarships

There is a procedure for application submission. The applicants are not entitled to apply directly rather they should submit their applications to the host university/institution. The eligible applications will be pre-selected by the host university/institution. The validated applications by the host university/institution are then submitted in the Mobility Online Tool before the deadline. Visit Official Page for Scholarship Information and Visit How to Apply Official Page.

official page:

Scholarship information :


Eiffel Excellence Scholarship Program in This Year (French 2022)

Well, now is the time to start your applications for the latest Eiffel Excellence Scholarship Program that has been initiated for all international students. It is a French Government Scholarship Program and under this program, 500 scholarships will be endowed to international applicants. The students will be able to apply for both Masters and Ph.D. Scholarship Program. This Scholarship Program is funded by the French Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs.

Read more :

All academic fields and majors are available for the students at all the French universities. You need not pay any application fee since it is not required at all. You have the option to make the selection of the educational institutes, you may study at public or private institutions under this scholarship program. Last year the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs allocated 378 Scholarship Program for international students and this year they have extended the number to 500 for the chosen students from the world who will be designated to study at French universities to pursue their Masters and Ph.D. degrees.

Details about Eiffel Excellence Scholarship Program

With this Scholarship Program, you can fulfill your dream to study in Europe in particular in the eye candy and heart-hitting locales of France. Eiffel Scholarship Program offers you a wider range of academic fields and majors for your Masters and Ph.D. degrees. The age restrictions are there – for Masters, you need to be under 30 years, and for Ph.D., you need to be under 35 years of age. Details of this Scholarship Program are mentioned as under:

Country Name: France

Funded By: French Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs

Program Level: Masters and PhD

Financial Benefits: Fully Funded

Deadline: 9th January 2021

Duration of the Scholarship Program

Well, there is a duration for the scholarship program for both Masters and Ph.D. programs. Let’s learn the same from below:

  • 12 Months for Master M1 Level (minimum)
  • 24 Months for Master M2 Level (maximum)
  • 36 Months for Ph.D. (maximum)

Financial Benefits of  the Scholarship Program

Eiffel Scholarship Program recipients will be provided with plenty of benefits since the Eiffel Excellence Scholarship Program carries an abundance of coverage to attract the eyes. This is a fully-funded Scholarship Program that will cover most of your expenses during your study in France. Let’s now discuss the benefits in detail as follows:

For Master’s Degree Scholarship Program

  • A Monthly Allowance of €1,031 for Living Expenses.
  • A Monthly Stipend of €150 Euro.
  • One International Return Round Airfare Ticket from Your Home Country to France.
  • Cultural Activities.
  • Housing Allowance.

For Ph.D. Degree Scholarship Program

  • A Monthly Allowance of €1,400 for Living Expenses and a Monthly Stipend as well.
  • One International Return Round Airfare Ticket from Your Home Country to France.
  • Cultural Activities.
  • Housing Allowance.

Available Fields of Study in the Scholarship Program

There are many academic fields you may choose from. Check the available fields below.

Eligibility Criteria for the Scholarship Program

You need to fulfill the eligibility before you start your applications for the Scholarship program.

Only foreign nationals (candidates should not be French nationals) are eligible to apply for the Eiffel Scholarships for International Students offered by the French Government.

Candidates need to be up to 30 years for a Master’s Degree Program.

Candidates need to be up to 35 years old for Ph.D. Degree Program.

There are certain universities where you may apply without IELTS & TOEFL requirements.

Application Timeline of the Scholarship Program

Call for Applications from September 28, 2020.

The deadline for the reception of applications by Campus (France) is January 8th, 2021.

Publication of results will be the week of March 22, 2021.

Deadline for Application Submission

The last date to submit the applications for the French Government Eiffel Excellence Scholarship Program 2021 is 9th January 2021.

How to Apply for Eiffel Scholarship Program?

First of all, you need to find which universities are working under this scholarship program in France. Then you may start your correspondence with the universities and later apply for your required program. In order to apply for the scholarship program, you need to Click Here :



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