Bio-Supercapacitor for Newest Biomedical Applications in 20th Century By Management Practicalintroduction

Research team from Chemnitz University of Technology, IFW Dresden, and IPF Dresden presents biocompatible energy storage device for sensor applications in blood vessels.

The miniaturization of microelectronic sensor technology, microelectronic robots or intravascular implants is progressing rapidly. However, it also poses major challenges for research. One of the biggest is the development of tiny but efficient energy storage devices that enable the operation of autonomously working microsystems – in more and more smaller areas of the human body for example. In addition, these energy storage devices must be bio-compatible if they are to be used in the body at all. Now there is a prototype that combines these essential properties. The breakthrough was achieved by an international research team led by Prof. Dr. Oliver G. Schmidt, Professorship of Materials Systems for Nanoelectronics at Chemnitz University of Technology, initiator of the Center for Materials, Architectures and Integration of Nanomembranes (MAIN) at Chemnitz University of Technology and director at the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden. The Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF) was also involved in the study as a cooperation partner.

In the current issue of Nature Communications, the researchers report on the smallest microsupercapacitors to date, which already functions in (artificial) blood vessels and can be used as an energy source for a tiny sensor system to measure pH. This storage system opens up possibilities for intravascular implants and microrobotic systems for next-generation biomedicine that could operate in hard-to-reach small spaces deep inside the human body. For example, real-time detection of blood pH can help predict early tumor growing. “It is extremely encouraging to see how new, extremely flexible, and adaptive microelectronics is making it into the miniaturized world of biological systems”, says research group leader Prof. Dr. Oliver G. Schmidt, who is extremely pleased with this research success.

The fabrication of the samples and the investigation of the biosupercapacitor were largely carried out at the Research Center MAIN at Chemnitz University of Technology.

“The architecture of our nano-bio supercapacitors offers the first potential solution to one of the biggest challenges – tiny integrated energy storage devices that enable the self-sufficient operation of multifunctional microsystems,” says Dr. Vineeth Kumar, researcher in Prof. Schmidt’s team and a research associate at the MAIN research center.

Smaller than a speck of dust – voltage comparable to a AAA battery.

Ever smaller energy storage devices in the submillimeter range – so-called “nano-supercapacitors” (nBSC) – for even smaller microelectronic components are not only a major technical challenge, however. This is because, as a rule, these supercapacitors do not use biocompatible materials but, for example, corrosive electrolytes and quickly discharge themselves in the event of defects and contamination. Both aspects make them unsuitable for biomedical applications in the body. So-called “biosupercapacitors (BSCs)” offer a solution. They have two outstanding properties: they are fully biocompatible, which means that they can be used in body fluids such as blood and can be used for further medical studies. In addition, biosupercapacitors can compensate for self-discharge behavior through bio-electrochemical reactions. 

In doing so, they even benefit from the body’s own reactions. This is because, in addition to typical charge storage reactions of a supercapacitor, redox enzymatic reactions and living cells naturally present in the blood increase the performance of the device by 40%.

Currently, the smallest such energy storage devices are larger than 3 mm3. Prof. Oliver Schmidt’s team has now succeeded in producing a 3,000 times smaller tubular nBSC, which, with a volume of 0.001 mm3 (1 nanolitre), occupies less space than a grain of dust and yet delivers up to 1.6 V supply voltage for microelectronic sensors. This energy can be used for a sensor system in the blood, for example. The power level also is roughly equivalent to the voltage of a standard AAA battery, although the actual current flow on these smallest scales is of course significantly lower. 

The flexible tubular geometry of the nano-biosupercapacitor provides efficient self-protection against deformations caused by pulsating blood or muscle contraction. At full capacity, the presented nano-biosupercapacitor can operate a complex fully integrated sensor system for measuring the pH value in blood.

Thanks to Origami structure technology: flexible, robust, tiny.

Origami structure technology involves placing the materials required for the nBSC components on a wafer-thin surface under high mechanical tension. When the material layers are subsequently detached from the surface in a controlled manner, the strain energy is released and the layers wind themselves into compact 3D devices with high accuracy and yield (95%). The nano-biosupercapacitors produced in this way were tested in three solutions called electrolytes: Saline, blood plasma, and blood. In all three electrolytes, energy storage was sufficiently successful, albeit with varying efficiency. In blood, the nano-biosupercapacitor showed excellent lifetime, holding up to 70% of its initial capacity even after 16 hours. A proton exchange separator (PES) was used to suppress the rapid self-discharge.

Performance stability even under realistic conditions

In order to maintain natural body functions in different situations, the flow characteristics of the blood and the pressure in the vessels are under constant change. Blood flow pulsates and varies according to vessel diameter and blood pressure. 

Any implantable system within the circulatory system must withstand these physiological conditions while maintaining stable performance. The team therefore studied the performance of their development – similar to a wind tunnel – in so-called microfluidic channels with diameters of 120 to 150 µm (0.12 to 0.15 mm) to mimic blood vessels of different sizes. 

In these channels, the researchers simulated and tested the behavior of their energy storage devices under different flow and pressure conditions. They found that the nano-biosupercapacitors can provide their power well and stably under physiologically relevant conditions. Self-contained sensor technology can support diagnostics – such as tumor diagnostics. The hydrogen potential (pH) of blood is subject to fluctuations. Continuous measurement of the pH can thus help in the early detection of tumors, for example. 

For this purpose, the researchers developed a pH sensor that is supplied with energy by the nano-biosupercapacitor. The 5 µm thin film transistor (TFT) technology previously established in Prof. Oliver Schmidt’s research team could be used to develop a ring oscillator with exceptional mechanical flexibility, operating at low power (nW to µW) and high frequencies (up to 100MHz). For the current project, the team used a nBSC based ring oscillator. The team integrated a pH-sensitive BSC into the ring oscillator so that there is a change in output frequency depending on the pH of the electrolyte. This pH-sensitive ring oscillator was also formed into a tubular 3D geometry using the “Swiss-roll” Origami technique, creating a fully integrated and ultra-compact system of energy storage and sensor. The hollow inner core of this micro sensor system serves as a channel for the blood plasma. 

In addition, three nBSCs connected in series with the sensor enable particularly efficient and self-sufficient pH measurement. These properties open up a wide range of possible applications, for example in diagnostics and medication.


2022 Basic of Spintronics (Giant Magnetoresistance Basics) By Management Practicalintroduction

Electrons have a charge and a spin, but until recently, charges and spins have been considered separately. 

In conventional electronics, the charges are manipulated by electric fields but the spins are ignored. Other classical technologies, magnetic recording, for example, are using the spin but only through its macroscopic manifestation, the magnetization of a ferromagnet. 

This picture started to change in 1988 when the discovery Baibich et al., 1988 and Binash et al., 1989 of the giant magnetoresistance GMR of the magnetic multilayers opened the way to an efficient control of the motion of the electrons by acting on their spin through the orientation of a magnetization. 

This rapidly triggered the development of a new field of research and technology, today called spintronics and, like the GMR, exploiting the influence of the spin on the mobility of the electrons in ferromagnetic materials. 

Actually, the influence of the spin on the mobility of the electrons in ferromagnetic metals, first suggested by Mott 1936, had been experimentally demonstrated and theoretically described by Albert Fert on his Ph.D. thesis almost 20 years before the discovery of 1988. 

The GMR was the first step on the road of the exploitation of this influence to control an electrical current. Its application to the read heads of hard disks greatly contributed to the fast rise in the density of stored information and led to the extension of the hard disk technology to consumer’s electronics. Then, the development of spintronics revealed many other phenomena related to the control and manipulation of spin currents. 

This field of research is expanding considerably, with very promising new axes like the phenomena of spin transfer, spintronics with semiconductors, molecular spintronics, or single-electron spintronics. GMR and spintronics take their roots from previous research on the influence of the spin on the electrical conduction in ferromagnetic metals Mott, 1936; Fert and Campbell, 1968, 1971, 1976; Loegel and Gautier, 1971.

Fig. 1

The spin dependence of the conduction can be understood from the typical band structure of a ferromagnetic metal shown in Fig. 1. The splitting between the energies of the “majority spin” and “minority spin” directions spin up and spin down in the usual notation makes that the electrons at the Fermi level, which carry the electrical current, are in different states for opposite spin directions and exhibit different conduction properties. This spin-dependent conduction was proposed by Mott 1936 to explain some features of the resistivity of ferromagnetic metals at the Curie temperature. 

However, in 1966, when Albert Fert started in his Ph.D. thesis, the subject was still almost completely unexplored. With his supervisor, Ian Campbell, proposed that he investigate it with experiments on Ni- and Fe-based alloys and had the privilege to be at the beginning of the study of this topic. He could confirm that the mobility of the electrons was spin dependent and, in particular, showed that the resistivities of the two channels can be very different in metals doped with impurities presenting a strongly spin-dependent scattering cross section. 

In Fig. 2, the example of the spin up majority spin and spin down minority spin resistivities of nickel doped with 1% of different types of impurities.
Fig. 2

It can be seen that the ratio alpha of the spin down resistivity to the spin up one can be as large as 20 for Co impurities or, as well, smaller than 1 for Cr or V impurities, consistent with the theoretical models developed by Jacques Friedel for the electronic structures of these impurities. The two-current conduction was rapidly confirmed by other groups and, for example, extended to Co-based alloys by Loegel and Gautier 1971 in Strasbourg.

reference :

Awschalom, D. D., and M. E. Flatté, 2007, Nat. Phys. 3, 153.

Baibich, M. N., J. M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Etienne, G. Creuzet, A. Friederich, and J. Chazelas, 1988, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472.

A. Fert, 2008, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 1517.


15 Smartphone Brand With Stylus Pen (New 2022)

Smartphones with a stylus pen have their own advantages.  An example is the use of a stylus pen to speed up movement on the touch screen of a cellphone compared to using a finger.  Those of you who use a smartphone with a stylus pen certainly understand this.

In addition, the stylus pen has a function like a pencil writing on paper.  So there is no need to bother typing, just use a stylus pen to write like handwriting on a smartphone screen.  Another function is to crop images, take screenshots of certain parts, and more.

Many smartphones do not come with a stylus pen.  In fact, not all stylus pens can work well on all types of smartphones.  Therefore, this time, I will review 15 cellphones with the latest and best quality stylus pens that you can choose from.


1. Motorola Moto G Stylus 2021 

Release: January, 2021 

Screen: 6.8 inch IPS LCD

Chipset: Qualcomm SDM678 Snapdragon 678 (11 nm) 

GPU: Adreno 612 


Internal Memory: 128GB 

External Memory: microSDXC (dedicated slot)

Real Camera: 48 MP + 8 MP + 2 MP + 2 MP 

Front Camera: 16 MP 

Battery: Li-Po 4000 mAh 

It seems that the 2021 Moto G Stylus is the cheapest stylus product on this list, compared to the Galaxy Note20 Ultra and several other flagship entries.  A continuation of the Moto G Stylus which was present in early 2020, this device has an improvement that deserves appreciation.

For example, in terms of performance, it increased from Snapragon 665 to 678. In addition, the Triple Camera is now a Quad Camera, adding a fourth lens in the form of a 2 MP depth sensor.  Apart from that, there is no significant improvement. The battery still uses the same 4,000 mAh, and, again, there is no fast charging feature.

2. Samsung Galaxy Note20 Ultra

Release: August, 2020 

Screen: Dynamic AMOLED, 6.9 inches, 1440 x 3088 pixels

Chipset: Exynos 990 (7 nm+) 

GPU: Mali-G77 MP11 


Internal Memory: 256GB, 512GB 

External Memory: – 

Rear Camera: 108 MP + 12 MP + 12 MP

Front Camera: 10 MP 

Battery: Li-Ion 4,500 mAh 

You are guaranteed not to go wrong in choosing the Samsung Galaxy Note20 Ultra as a phone that features a stylus.  The presence of the S Pen has always been awaited by Samsung fans because it provides superior responsiveness and unique features.

Just imagine, the S Pen on the Galaxy Note20 Ultra has a latency rate of 9 milliseconds.  This is the best latency rate in the entire stylus range.

Not only that, you can also feel comfortable writing or drawing on the 6.9-inch screen with QHD resolution.  In the photography sector, there is support for three lenses on the back with a resolution of 108 MP (wide), and two other lenses with a resolution of 12 MP as a periscope and ultra-wide sensor.

Featuring a 4,500 mAh battery, this phone is also equipped with 25W fast charging and wireless charging features, which can also be used as a power bank.  Interested?

3. Samsung Galaxy Note20 

Release: August, 2020 

Screen: Super AMOLED, 6.7 inches, 1080 x 2400 pixels.

Chipset: Exynos 990 (7 nm+) 

GPU: Mali-G77 MP11 


Internal Memory: 256GB 

External Memory: – 

Rear Camera: 12 MP + 64 MP + 12 MP Front 

Camera: 10 MP 

Battery: Li-Ion 4300 mAh 

If the Ultra version is too big, there is the regular model Samsung Galaxy Note20, which also features a stylus called the S Pen.  However, there is something slightly different with the performance of this S Pen.  If in its Ultra variant it has a latency of 9 milliseconds, this time it only presents a latency of 26 milliseconds.

Although the responsiveness is slightly lower, the S Pen on the Samsung Galaxy Note20 can still be relied on to write and draw according to its function.  Meanwhile, the screen is also quite superior, with a size of 6.7 inches that supports HDR10 +.

Worried about this phone's running out of battery quickly? With the support of a 4,300 mAh battery and the Exynos 990 chipset, which is quite power efficient, the Samsung Galaxy Note20 can last all day in normal use.



Release: May, 2020 

Screen: 6.8 inch IPS LCD

Chipset: Mediatek MT6765 Helio P35 (12 nm).

GPU: PowerVR GE8320


Internal Memory: 64GB 

External Memory: microSDXC

Rear Camera: 13 MP + 5 MP + 5 MP 

Front Camera: 13 MP 

Battery: Li-Po 4000 mAh 

In May 2020, a South Korean HP manufacturer named LG released the LG Stylo 6 to the market. This phone is the successor to the LG Stylo 5 which was released in 2019. Of course, as a successor, this smartphone has several developments, such as a larger screen size and memory capacity, the number of cameras, and so on.

The screen that is presented is 6.8 inches with a resolution of 1080 x 2460 pixels using an IPS LCD panel.  The rear camera now has three lenses instead of the Stylo 5's single camera. The resolution of the three cameras is 13 MP as a wide lens, 5 MP as an ultra wide lens, and finally a 5 MP lens as a depth lens.

In addition, this phone runs on the Android 10 operating system and has a fingerprint sensor behind the body.  Overall, the LG Stylo 6 is a solid choice for both productivity and multimedia needs.

5. Motorola Moto G7 Stylus 

Release: February, 2020 

Screen: 6.4 inch IPS LCD

Chipset: Qualcomm SDM665 Snapdragon 665 (11 nm) 

GPU: Adreno 610 


Internal Memory: 128GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 512 GB 

Rear Camera: 48 MP + 16 MP + 2 MP 

Front Camera: 16 MP 

Battery: Li-Ion 4000 mAh 

Motorola has released a successor to the Moto G7 series, which was released in 2019. Instead of naming it the G8, this manufacturer from Uncle Sam's country has released two smartphones called the Moto G Power and Moto G Stylus series.  What will be discussed now is, of course, the Moto G Stylus.

Present in the middle to upper price segment, you can be sure the specifications you get are worthy of answering most people's market demands.  With its Snapdragon 665 chipset, various types of processes on the smartphone can run well, including when using applications and games.

With a Li-Ion battery with a capacity of 4000 mAh embedded behind the body shell, this smartphone is claimed to last up to 2 days in normal use.

There is a stylus that can be pulled down at the bottom right and can be used for various activities such as drawing, writing notes, or navigating.  The stylus pen has good accuracy and precision, so you can write as if you were using an ordinary pen on paper.

This smartphone comes with a triple camera configuration with a resolution of 48 MP (wide), 16 MP (ultra wide), and 2 MP (macro).  You can take panoramic pictures with an area of ​​117 degrees and are able to take close-up photos with satisfactory quality details.  There is also a night mode feature to take landscape photos in low light.  The Moto G Stylus is pretty tempting, isn't it?

6. Samsung Galaxy Note 10 Lite 

Release: January, 2020 

Screen: 6.7 inch Super AMOLED

Chipset: Exynos 9810 (10 nm) 

GPU: Mali-G72 MP18 

RAM: 6GB, 8GB 

Internal Memory: 128GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 1 TB 

Rear Camera: 12 MP + 12 MP 12 MP 

Front Camera: 32 MP 

Battery: Li-Po 4500 mAh 

The Samsung Galaxy Note10 Lite is also one of the smartphones equipped with the S-Pen facility.  This phone with a 6.7-inch screen carries a stylus pen that is slimmer than the previous Note series.  In addition, the S-Pen from a cellphone that carries the Exynos 9810 processor with a 2.7GHz Octa Core CPU is more responsive and dynamic.

Not only is the smartphone water-resistant, but the stylus pen from this phone, which offers 6GB or 8GB of RAM, is also equipped with Bluetooth technology that allows you to use this S-pen as a remote control.

7. Samsung Galaxy Note 10

Release: August 2019 

Screen: 6.3-inch Dynamic AMOLED 

Chipset: Exynos 9825 (7 nm) 

GPU: Mali-G76 MP12 


Internal Memory: 256 GB 

External Memory: - 

Rear Camera: 12 MP + 12 MP + 16 MP 

Front Camera: 10 MP 

Battery: Li-ion 3500 mAh 

The Samsung Galaxy Note 10 is the latest flagship smartphone from Samsung and is equipped with a sophisticated S-Pen.  In fact, the S-Pen from HP, which has a 6.3-inch Infinit screen with a clear Dynamic AMOLED panel, you can use to select the camera mode using only gestures. great, right?

The Samsung Galaxy Note 10 is powered by the Exynos 9825 chipset and 8GB of RAM.  The performance is, of course very fast.  You can rely on this cellphone to play heavy games like Call of Duty Mobile, which is much loved now.

This smartphone with three rear camera lenses and one selfie camera lens has water and dust resistance too, you know.  Yes, the Samsung Galaxy Note 10 already has an IP68 certificate, which makes it able to survive in water as deep as 1.5 meters for approximately 30 minutes.

Unfortunately, this smartphone still has a 3500 mAh battery capacity.  In addition, there is no 3.5 mm audio jack embedded in its beautiful and elegant body.

8. Samsung Galaxy Note 10+

Release: August 2019 

Screen: 6.8 inch Dynamic AMOLED

Chipset: Exynos 9825 (7 nm) 

GPU: Mali-G76 MP12 

RAM: 12GB 

Internal Memory: 256GB, 512GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 1 TB (shares SIM slot) 

Rear Camera: 12 MP + 12 MP + 16 MP + TOF 3D 

Front Camera: 10 MP 

Battery: Li-ion 4300 mAh 

You can also make a choice on the Samsung Galaxy Note 10+.  

This smartphone, which is also equipped with a stylus pen, uses the same chipset as the Samsung Galaxy Note 10, and both have fast performance.  One of the most prominent differences lies in the RAM and internal memory capacity, which is larger than the Samsung Galaxy Note 10.

Well, one other difference that stands out the most is in the camera sector.  The Samsung Galaxy Note 10+ is equipped with a 3D ToF lens, while the Samsung Galaxy Note 10 only has three main camera lenses, without the presence of a 3D ToF lens.

Not only that, the Samsung Galaxy Note 10+ is equipped with a microSD slot and has a larger battery capacity of 4300 mAh.

If you have more funds and are looking for a cellphone with the latest stylus to support daily productivity, the Samsung Galaxy S10+ which is also water and dust resistant, is the right choice for you.

9. LG Stylo 5 

Release: June 2019 

Screen: 6.2 inch IPS LCD

Chipset: Qualcomm SDM450 Snapdragon 450 (14 nm) 

GPU: Adreno 506 


Internal Memory: 32GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 1 TB (dedicated slot)

Rear Camera: 13 MP Front Camera: 5 MP 

Battery: Li-Ion 3500 mAh 

Are you looking for a smartphone with the latest stylus from LG?  There's an LG Stylo 5 you can take home with you.  In addition to having a stylus, this smartphone from a South Korean vendor is equipped with a large 6.2-inch screen with Full HD + resolution.

In the kitchen sector, this smartphone is powered by the Qualcomm Snapdragon 450 chipset, which is not the most powerful chipset at the moment.  However, you can still rely on this cellphone to run various lightweight applications.  One of them is a social media application.  This  smartphone with 3 GB of RAM can also be used to play games that don't require high specifications.

The LG Stylo 5, which has a 13 MP main camera lens and a 5 MP selfie camera, is a suitable choice for you, especially if you often exist on social media and really need a smartphone that has a stylus.


10. Infinix Note 6 

Release: June, 2019 

Display: AMOLED, 6.01 inches, 1080 x 2160 pixels

Chipset: Mediatek MT6765 Helio P35 (12nm) 

GPU: PowerVR GE8320 


Internal Memory: 64GB ROM 

External Memory: microSD (dedicated slot)

Rear Camera: 16 MP + 8 MP + 2 MP Front 

Camera: 16 MP 

Battery: Li-Po 4000 mAh 

Infinix has also just released a smartphone with its newest stylus pen, you know.  Yes, there is the Infinix Note 6. At first glance, the blue color and yellow stylus pen remind us of the Samsung Galaxy Note 9. The appearance of the two may be similar, but the quality is certainly different.

Infinix launches a smartphone with this Mediatek Helio P35 chipset, especially for those of you who are looking for a smartphone with a stylus that is priced at an affordable price.  This smartphone, with 4 GB of RAM and 64 GB of internal memory, is suitable as an option, if you want to have a smartphone with a stylus that is not expensive.  Interested in buying a smarthone with this 4000 mAh battery?

11. LG Q Stylus 

Release: August 2018 

Screen: 6.2 inch IPS LCD

Chipset: Mediatek MT6750

GPU: Mali-T860MP2 


Internal Memory: 32GB, 64GB 

External Memory: microSD (dedicated slot)

Rear Camera: 16 MP

Front Camera: 8 MP/5 MP

Battery: Li-Ion 3300 mAh 

Next is a product from LG that comes with a variety of spec choices.  There are three versions of the LG Q Stylus to choose from, namely the LG Q Stylus, LG Q Stylus Alpha, and LG Q Stylus Plus.  There are only slight differences between the three.  To be sure, each of these products has been equipped with a stylus pen.

For the regular version of the LG Q Stylus, you can enjoy the kitchen runway with the Mediatek MT6750 chipset.  Although it's not a powerful chipset to play all games, this performance is reasonable for a smartphone in its class.

As a smartphone that supports the lower-middle class market, the LG Q Stylus is quipped with RAM and ROM that are quite appropriate for its class, namely 3 or 4 GB RAM and internal memory with a capacity of 32 GB or 64 GB. There is also a special slot for those of you who want to expand the internal memory using a microSD.

The stylus from HP is located on the lower right of the HP body and has a comfortable and accurate responsiveness.  When pulled out, there will be a notification to open the default notepad application.  So, you can write directly without having to go through complicated navigation.

This smartphone that runs on the Android 8.1 operating system also comes with the NFC feature and has a Li-Ion 3300 mAh battery capacity.  If you're looking for an HP stylus with a widescreen and an affordable price, the LG Q Stylus is worth considering.

12. Infinix Note 5 Stylus

Release: 2018 

Screen: 6.0 inch LTPS IPS LCD 

Chipset: Mediatek MT6763T Helio P23 (16 nm) 

GPU: Mali-G71 MP2 


Internal Memory: 32GB, 64GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 128 GB (hybrid slot)

Rear Camera: 16 MP

Front Camera: 16 MP 

Battery: Li-Po 4000 mAh 

Who says that smartphones with stylus pens are always sold at a high price?  The Infinix Note 5 Stylus proves that with only 3 million rupiah, you can look stylish with a smartphone equipped with a stylus pen.

This 6.0-inch sailing smartphone offers 2 variants, namely 32 GB ROM / 4 GB RAM and 64 GB ROM / 4 GB RAM.  The LG G4 Stylus is powered by a MediaTek MT6763T Helio P23 (16 nm) processor with an Octa-core 2.0 GHz Cortex-A53 CPU.

13. Samsung Galaxy Note 9

Release: October 2018 

Screen: 6.4 inch Super AMOLED 

Chipset: Exynos 9810 (10 nm) 

GPU: Mali-G72 MP18 

RAM: 8GB, 6GB 

Internal Memory: 128GB, 512GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 1 TB (shares SIM slot) 

Rear Camera: 12 MP + 12 MP 

Front Camera: 8 MP 

Battery: Li-Ion 4000 mAh 

Samsung Galaxy Note 9 is a series of HP Samsung Note series that also use a stylus pen. Interestingly, the stylus pen used in this smartphone is a Bluetooth s-pen.  Reporting from theverge, this Bluetooth s-pen can be used as a camera shutter to adjust music.

This smartphone has a 6.4-inch screen with OLED technology and an elegant design with a curved screen.  Not only superior in terms of design, the Samsung Galaxy Note 9 is also fairly superior in the performance sector. Smartphones that use the chipset from Exynos, of course, have smooth performance.

The camera sector of this smartphone can also help support your needs for selfies. Of course, the two main cameras embedded in the back of the body, namely a 12 MP lens and one lens on the front of an 8 MP, are sufficient.

If you have more budget, and want a smartphone with a stylus pen from Samsung with good performance, a luxurious design, and a capable camera as well as a large capacity battery, you can choose this smartphone.

14. Samsung Galaxy Note8

Release: September 2017

Screen: 6.3 inch Super AMOLED

Chipset: Exynos 8895 (10 nm)

GPU: Mali-G71 MP20


Internal Memory: 64GB, 128GB, 256GB

External Memory: microSD, up to 1 TB (shares SIM slot)

Rear Camera: 12 MP + 12 MP

Front Camera: 8 MP

Battery: Li-ion 3300 mAh

The Samsung Galaxy Note 8 or it can also be called the Galaxy Note 8 is one of the smartphones with the latest stylus pens that you can look at.  This smartphone has a stylus that has a comfortable and comfortable precision when in contact with the screen.  Moreover, the screen on this smartphone has a 6.3-inch Quad HD + screen that extends thanks to a ratio of 18.5: 9.

The Galaxy Note 8 itself carries the Exynos 8895 Octa chipset as the kitchen runway.  Especially for the American and Chinese markets, this smartphone is equipped with the Snapdragon 835 chipset. In the camera sector, this smartphone carries a dual 12 MP rear camera whose photos are topnotch.  On the front, there is an 8 MP camera that can be relied on for selfies.

This smartphone with a 3300 mAh battery is quite an interesting set of specs. including the presence of a stylus pen.  Those of you who need a smartphone with a stylus pen and excel in various sectors, can take a look at this smartphone that is supported by 6 GB of RAM.

15. Infinix Note 4 Pro

Release: July, 2017

Screen: 5.7 inch LTPS IPS LCD

Chipset: Mediatek MT6753 (28 nm)

GPU: Mali-T720MP3

RAM: 2GB, 3GB 

Internal Memory: 16GB, 32GB 

External Memory: microSD, up to 128 GB (dedicated slot)

Rear Camera: 13 MP

Front Camera: 8 MP 

Battery: Li-Po 4500 mAh 

HP with the latest stylus pen is not always expensive.  There is also a smartphone equipped with an affordable stylus, the Infinix Note 4 Pro.  This HP is an HP under 2 million, which offers various advantages.  In addition to the stylus pen, this smartphone has advantages in terms of design. It is made of metal and has a solid body. You could say the build quality of this smartphone is good.

Another advantage of the Infinix Note 4 Pro is the capacity of 4500 mA.  A large capacity can provide power for a long time on this smartphone with a 5.7-inch Full HD screen.  The battery also supports fast charging technology from Infinix, namely X-charge which is known to be quite good.

This smartphone with the Mediatek MT6753 chipset and 3 GB RAM support, is suitable for those of you who need a smartphone with a stylus pen that is affordable and has long durability.  Interested?

Now, you know that not all smarthones with the best stylus pens are always sold at high prices. Well, are you planning to buy a smartphone with a stylus pen?  This recommendation from Cari Signal is a reference for you, you know.


(New 11 reviewed) iphone 13 Pro Max gsmarena Desember 2021

Just like other Apple products, the iPhone 13 Pro Max will amaze users the first time you use it.  However, the shape that looks like the iPhone 12 might make this new generation look ordinary.

The iPhone 13 screen is brighter than its predecessor.  Longer battery life.  Apple has upgraded an already great camera with new sensors and computational photography features that make you feel like a pro. Even though it's the latest release, the regular iPhone 13 has a few flaws.  Charging is still relatively slow compared to some Android phones. The following is a review of the iPhone 13 reported from, Monday (22/11/2021).

1. Design and Color 

There are two new designs that you will notice when you use the iPhone 13. First, the camera on the back is now arranged diagonally, not vertically.

Second, the notch is now 20% smaller than it was before.The small notch makes users more satisfied when watching videos in landscape mode in full screen.

In addition to the two new designs.  The button placement is slightly different on the iPhone 13. The power button is lower on the right side, and the same goes for the ringer switch and volume buttons on the left.

Meanwhile, the iPhone 13 offers a Ceramic Shield front, a durable glass on the back.  Your new iPhone will get the same IP68 water resistance as before.  Unfortunately, the iPhone 13 doesn't have Touch ID yet.  The iPhone 13 comes in five colors, including Pink, Blue, Midnight, Starlight and (Product) Red.

2. Screen Display 

The iPhone 13 features a brighter OLED display that makes it more visible in sunlight and is more power efficient.  This Super Retina XDR display is now 28 percent brighter than the iPhone 12. The team from tested the display brightness in direct sunlight.

"While watching the trailer for The Matrix Resurrections, I was blown away by the neon codes that circled Neo as he walked down the street.  In another scene I can see the fine hair on Neo's beard as he stares at the sun," wrote, Monday (11/22/2021).

The color accuracy of the iPhone 13's panel is also excellent, as it reaches a Delta-E score of 0.26 (lower is better).  Better than 0.29 for the Galaxy S21 and iPhone 12.

3. Camera

There's a lot more to the iPhone 13's camera than just the new diagonal lens array.  Because of the larger camera with 1.7m pixels, the wide camera now collects 47 percent more light than the iPhone 12.

Another plus is that the ultrawide camera can now capture four times more scenes and the newer sensor provides better low-light performance along with less noise.

If you're not a fan of the usual iPhone color temperature — or you just want more control over your photos — you'll appreciate the Photography Styles feature.  In the Camera app, you can switch between different styles, including standard, bright, rich contrast, warm, and cool.

In many shooting situations, the iPhone 13 is on par with the iPhone 12, but there is no noticeable improvement in night mode.

4. Videos

The iPhone 13 is a smartphone that can make you feel like a director when you shoot videos.  That's thanks to a new feature called Cinematic mode.

This effect brings depth of field to your footage and automatically changes focus to various subjects depending on what's happening in the frame, such as someone turning their head to talk to someone else.

Cinematic mode isn't perfect, as the iPhone 13 sometimes takes a second to recognize a faster moving subject.  The bigger downside is that this mode is limited to 1080p, as you can't record Cinematic mode in 4K.

5. Performance and Bionics A15.

The A15 Bionic doesn't offer the dramatic performance gains from the A14 Bionic used in the iPhone 12. Like the A14 Bionic, the A15 offers a 6-core CPU and 4-core GPU, but there's now a 16-core Neural Engine for machine learning and AI, up from  8 cores on the previous chipset.  In games like Genshin Impact the animations and console particle effects feel quality while climbing mountains, exploring landscapes and trying to fight off enemies. 

"I'm also impressed with the Seek app, which instantly identifies plants when I hover the camera around my backyard," wrote

The graphics performance of the iPhone 13 is also impressive.  On the 3DMark Wild Life benchmark, the new iPhone hit 55.9 frames per second.  That's only slightly higher than the iPhone 12 (51 fps). 

Toms Guide didn't see much improvement on the video editing test using Adobe Premiere Rush.  The iPhone 13 took 25.9 seconds to transcode 4K video up to 1080p compared to 26.5 seconds for the iPhone 12.

6. Battery Life and Charging. 

Apple claims that the iPhone 13 can last up to 1.5 hours longer than the iPhone 12 thanks to a larger battery and more efficient display performance and the A15 Bionic chip.  In the Tom's Guide battery test, which involved continuous web browsing over 5G at 150 nits of screen brightness over cellular (in this case the AT&T network), the iPhone 13 lasted 10 hours and 33 minutes.  That's more than 2 hours longer than the time the iPhone 12 turned on. 

Unfortunately, the iPhone 13 offers the same battery charging speeds as before.  The new iPhones can reach 51 percent battery capacity in 30 minutes with a 20W charger from Apple.  The iPhone's 15W MagSafe charger is a bit slower.

7. iOS 15.  

iOS 15 brings several improvements to your iPhone, many of which focus on shared experiences.  FaceTime has improved audio and a cleaner interface, and a future update that lets you listen to music or watch movies or TV shows with friends or family.  The Messages app provides a Shared with You section for photos, articles and more to make it easier to keep track of all the different links your friends have written your way.  I personally appreciate the new Focus feature in iOS 15, which lets you filter notifications based on what you're doing.  And notifications themselves have been improved, complete with a new summary view so you're not overwhelmed by constant alerts.

8. Other iOS 15 Highlight Issues Include Redesigned Safari.

More fully featured Weather app and an enhanced Maps app with a more detailed and improved street view.  Live Text uses Google Lens by recognizing text in real time through the camera when you want to search for things or get translations.

 So far iPhone 13 owners have been experiencing some issues.  For example: 

9. Locking Issues.  

Some iPhone 13 users are finding that the phone won't unlock with the Apple Watch, although a fix appears to be in the works.

 10. Responsiveness. 

Some iPhone 13 owners have complained about the touchscreen not being responsive enough in some cases, which was a problem with iOS 15. On the iPhone 13 Pro, there have been complaints that the camera automatically switches between lenses without warning, and Apple is about to roll out an update that will allow users to  to turn this off.

 11. ProMotion Display.

The ProMotion display on the iPhone 13 Pro doesn't run at 120Hz on some apps, which Apple will address in an update.  As well as developers need to optimize their applications as well.


The Best 1 Finland Technology of Education Number One in The World

Besides being known as the happiest country, Finland is also known as one of the countries with the best education system in the world.  Based on the Education Rankings by Country 2021 issued by the World Population Review, Finland is in the third position of the country with the best education in the world.  While in the first and second positions are occupied by China and Hong Kong.

Finland does not take first place in PISA's prestigious triennial index, but in the latest 2018 report Finland was the only country where students had high reading skills and high life satisfaction.  PISA itself is a world-class assessment held every three years to test the academic performance of school children by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development).

Launching from New Nordic, this is greatly influenced by the fact that Finnish students have a balanced school life and free time which allows them to be more involved in various extracurricular activities.  This balance culture then continues in work life that upholds work-life balance.

Quoting from Investopedia, in 2020, the three countries with the best education systems in the world are Finland, Denmark, and South Korea.  It is measured by developmental level including early childhood school enrollment, test scores in math, reading, and science at primary and secondary levels.  In addition, high school and college graduation rates as well as literacy rates for adults.

For some, the Finnish education system is a dream.  Among these are the primary school learning system through games, short study time, no standardized tests, and free college fees for students from the European Union, European Economic Area (EEA), and Switzerland.  In addition, the majority of teachers in Finland also hold a master's degree.  In fact, elementary school teachers are required to have the degree.  So it is not surprising that Finland is often referred to as a role model of education in the world. 

There are several important factors that contribute to the success of the Finnish education system, including;

1. equal opportunity for all citizens to get access to free, inclusive and comprehensive education;

2. learning through games for children before entering primary education so that they can explore their natural creativity; 

3. personalized learning by empowering each student's abilities.  Students have an active role in what and how they learn to unlock their own potential; 

4. there is no standardization test.  Student learning is assessed through a variety of qualitative methods that focus on students' overall development and learning of soft skills rather than memorization skills and quantitative scores.

5. short study time at school (5 hours) and minimal homework (PR) given.  Thus children have more time to play and do hobbies so they can develop soft skills outside of class;

6. supported by qualified technology.  Much of Finland's national curriculum is phenomenal learning and develops a unique learning experience through innovative teaching and technology;  and

7. an education system that promotes lifelong learning where no matter what age a person is, they can always continue their education according to a flexible system; 

So how does the education system in Finland work?

Early Childhood Education Programs

Education for early childhood in Finland is designed with the concept of learning through play.  Early childhood education (pre-primary school) begins when a child is 6 years old.  However, if you want to start your child's education early, the Finnish government also offers an Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) program.

According to the Finnish National Agency for Education, the ECEC program adopts a "learning by playing" model with the aim of promoting balanced growth.  Although policies are regulated by the central government, local educational institutions are granted broad autonomy which allows them to set budgets, class sizes, and educational goals.

This early childhood education program will cost money, but also receive a large subsidy from the government.  Parents are only charged 14% of the total bill, but the total cost charged to each household is determined by income and number of children. Quoting from the World Economic Forum, although there is a personal fee, this program is quite popular because the enrollment rate for children aged 3 to 5 years in Finland reaches almost 80 percent.

Basic Education

When the child has entered the age of 7 years, it is time to receive basic education.  Finland does not separate primary education into primary and secondary schools.  In contrast, the Finnish government offers a single structure education for 9 years with 190 days per year.  Just like ECEC, the government also gives authority to educational institutions to revise and change the curriculum according to the needs of their students.

In addition to providing the knowledge and skills needed in life, the purpose of this basic education is to support student growth and shape ethically responsible human and social character.

Interestingly, most primary education teachers are required to hold a master's degree.  According to a report by the World Economic Forum, 80 percent of primary education teachers also participate in continuing professional development.  This continuous development is intended to ensure Finnish educators are immersed in the science of teaching.  Finland's National Education Agency promotes self-evaluation and improvement for schools and teachers.  Finland does not have a national standardized test to determine students' graduation.  However, they apply a national evaluation of learning outcomes.

High School Education

After spending time in primary education, the child will continue on to senior secondary education.  This program is not mandatory for Finnish children.  However, the World Economic Forum notes that 90 percent of students take up secondary education after they graduate from primary education.

High school in Finland is divided into two main lines, namely general and vocational.  Both paths take about three years.  General education takes the form of courses, but students have a lot of freedom to determine their study schedule.  In their final year, students will take the national matriculation exam, Finland's only standardized exam.  Later, their scores will be used as part of the college application.

While vocational education is more focused on work and combines internships and school learning.  Vocational education concludes with a competency-based qualification after the student completes an individual study plan.

 Student College

Like primary and secondary education, higher education in Finland is free.  Equal access for all people has become a constitutional right in Finland.  Students are only required to pay for books, transportation, and other school supplies they need.  In addition, the government also provides financial assistance for students.

The Finnish higher education system is divided into two types, namely universities and universities of applied sciences.  Universities focus on scientific research, while universities of applied sciences emphasize practical application.  Students typically earn a bachelor's degree within four years.  Meanwhile, to get a master's degree takes five to six years.  Students who choose a vocational track in upper secondary education can continue on to a college of applied sciences.  Finland strongly supports education to promote social equality and a competent workforce.


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